Anatomy and Physiology Cardiac Control Center in Medulla Oblongata

Let's learn about the cardiac control center The heart is capable of beating entirely on its own. However, there are times when the heart needs to speed up or slow down. This is where the nervous system comes in It all begins in the part of the brain stem known as the medulla oblongata. There is a part of the medulla oblongata that helps to control the heart called the cardiac control center. The parts of the cardiac control center include the cardioaccelerator center that speeds up the heart and the cardioinhibitory center.

That slows it down. The cardiac control center is sensitive to visceral input such as blood pressure, pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Let's look at the cardioaccelerator center in more detail. The cardioaccelerator center connects to the heart via cardiac accelerator nerves. These nerves connect to a part of the heart called the sinoatrial node. The sinoatrial node is located in the right atrium. The cardiac accelerator nerves secrete norepinephrine.a neurotransmitter that speeds up the heart. The cardiac accelerator nerves are also part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic.

Nervous system. Cardiac accelerator nerves run from the paravertebral ganglia in several thoracic segments to the heart. Lets look at the cardioinhibitory center. The cardioinhibitory center also connects to the sinoatrial node but it connects via the vagus nerve cranial nerve X. The vagus nerve secretes acetylcholine to the sinoatrial node. Acetyl choline works to slow down the heart. The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Its fibers come from the upper portion of the spinal cord and some fibers branch to reach the heart.

The vagus nerve innervates other organs as well. Let's see how this system works. Neenah just got off of work and is relaxing at home on the sofa. When Nennah sits up suddenly she notices her heart rate increases. This is due to a sensory receptor in Neenah's neck called the carotid sinus. The carotid sinus is located just above where the common carotid artery splits into internal and external carotid arteries. The carotid sinus is a baroreceptor. Baroreceptors sense changes in pressure. When Nennah sits up suddenly the pressure drops in her carotid artery.

Easy Ohms Law Tutorial Neuroscience and Cardiac Physiology physics application

Ohms Law Applied to Neuro and Cardio physiology From Physics, we know that Voltage equals flow times resistance or V equals IR. Voltage means difference. In an electrical battery, there is a difference in charge. Let's say one side of the battery has 20 electrons, and the other side has 600 electrons. If you connect the two sides with a wire, the electrons will flow down gradient until each side is equal at 310 electrons. You can also put a light bulb in the wire, so as the electrons flow through the bulb, it gives off light.

If there are more electrons on one side thus a greater voltage, the electrons will flow faster giving off more light. If there is more resistance because the wire is rough and less conductive, the electrons will struggle to flow down the wire This slow flow of electrons means that the battery will last longer, but the bulb won't glow as brightly. This electrical concept can be applied to biology. Humans aren't made of batteries and wires, but we do havecharge gradients and channels. Instead of electrons, there are 20 sodium ions inside a cell,.

And 600 sodium ions outside. And instead of a wire, channels connect the two sides. When you open the channels, the sodium flows in to the cell. If you increase the Voltage or ion gradient, the ions will flow more quickly. If you increase resistance by blocking channels with an antagonist, the signal will be conducted more slowly. Ohms law doesn't just apply to electrical systems. The heart muscle also has a voltage instead of electricity, it has a pressure differential. When the heart contracts, there is a lot of pressure,.

When it relaxes there is less pressure. Instead of electrons flowing, there are blood cells that flow not through a wire, but through arteries If you want blood to flow more quickly, you can increase the voltage by having the heart squeeze harder, like during exercise. Clogging arteries with fat creates more resistance, slowing blood flow. To maintain blood supply, your heart contracts with greater force, increasing the voltage to overcome this increased resistance. This is MUCH more work for your heart, contracting this hard every second of every day, which is why blocking your arteries with fat,.

Regulating Arterial Blood Pressure

One of the things that we know about hypertension is, first of all, it affects one out of every three adults. It's an epidemic in our country and it's one of the major concerns for institutes like NIH and the American Heart Association. It's primarily two disease models. Hypertension, which is higher blood pressure. And lower blood pressure, which is orthostatic intolerance. For someone who has really low blood pressure, they may have trouble standing up with this. So with the micronography technique we're taking a tungsten microelectrode and we're inserting it into the peroneal nerve.

And this right now is the gold standard for assessing sympathetic traffic. It's the only method out there where we can get direct signals of sympathetic traffic. When we're probing for a sympathetic nerve we're listening for what we call an insertion burst. That insertion burst will give us an indication that we're actually in the nerve. Now we still have to make tiny microadjustments sometimes in order to get there because we're actually recording from multiple fibers. And what we're interested in is, individuals who are more prone to fainting have lower.

Sympathetic tone, lower sympathetic traffic, and, or, they have a reduced ability to increase sympathetic traffic. So on one scale, one side of the spectrum we're looking at fainting and orthostatic intolerance. On the other side of the scale, someone who has a high sympathetic traffic, outflow, and tone, often is associated with hypertension. And so we look at these patients and try to characterize their activity levels, and then we expose them to various types of intervention. So one intervention is getting more sleep, other interventions are physical activity. One that we just completed was looking at the effects of the Omega3 fatty acids,.

Autoregulation of Cerebral Blood

Hi! I'm Jim Smirniotopoulos and we are going to talk briefly about auto regulation of cerebral blood flow. This hass nothing to do with where you can park and how fast can drive. The brain is about 150 of your body's weight in adult patients. It gets about 16th of the cardiac output and, it uses about 20 percent or 15th of oxygen that we consume everyday. Cerebral gray matter has four times the blood flow as compared to the white matter and, this is typically measured in a standardized way.

By looking at the gray matter of the cerebral cortex and the white matter the corpus callosum. In the process of autoregulation, there is local control of cerebral perfusion and blood flow this is due to a sphincter like mechanism in the precapillary arterial that is responsive to tissue pCo2, pH, and very slightly to tissue oxygenation or p02. This local regulation of cerebral blood flow is the mechanism for BOLD scanning in functional MRI. W can also test this actively by giving the patient acetazolamide which drops brain pH and watching for an increase.

In cerebral perfusion, showing the reserve capacity. In a pressure passive system cerebral blood flow is going to be linearly related to mean arterial pressure. But, this is not good for the functioning of the brain. So in the brain we want to maintain cerebral perfusion in the face of varying blood pressure, and we do that by arteriole vasodilation or constriction in the pre capillary arteriole that last arteriole before the capillary bed. That will bend this pressureflow curve so that we can maintain the same degree of cerebral.

Perfusion over a wide range or mean arterial pressures. Brain perfusion is typically described as constant between eighty and a 180 millimetres of mercury BP. In patients who have chronic hypertension, this pressureflow curve is shifted to the right and, in these patients, if you lower their blood pressure into what would otherwise be a normal range they may actually reduce their cerebral perfusion and have ischemia. So, autoregulation is a mechanism by which the brain locally controls blood flow in a physiologic and dynamic manner, based on looking at tissue pH.

Human Lungs Parts of Respiratory system Human anatomy 3D animation tutorials

Humans for respiration need a continuous supply of oxygen. Humans take in oxygen and leave out carbon dioxide, which is the poisonous waste product in the process of respiration. The lungs are essential respiratory organs in the human body. The human anatomy consists of two lungs. They can be called as the left and the right lung, respectively. The left lung has two lobes while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs contain approximately 1500 miles of airways and about 300 to 500 million alveoli. The total surface area is an approximate of 70m2 msquare in a fully grown human body,.

Roughly the size of a badminton court. An alveoli , also known as little cavity , is derived from the Latin word alveolus , and these are the terminal ends of a respiratory tree and are shaped like a hollowcavity. The average respiratory rates of a resting adult is about 1020 breaths per minute. We spend about 13rd of a minute in inhaling. The total breathing capacity, however depends on the individual, that is, it varies on factors depending on age, height, weight and sex. It is observed that females tend to have a.

2025 lower breathing capacity than males, while tall people tend to have a larger lung capacity than shorter people. And people living in lowlined areas, that is, at the sealevel, tend to have a smaller lung capacity than those people living at a higher altitude. People who smoke have a lower lung capacity than nonsmokers. Lungs function similar to that of bellows, which is a mechanical device that blows strong current of air. Lungs convert the hormones that cause the narrowing of blood vessels and drives the blood pressure up and also remove the waste.

Products in the blood. A lung is measured to be between 1012 inches long. The two lungs are separated by a structure called media sternum. The lungs are covered by a structure known as the pulmonary pleura. The lung is an important organ that performs various functions that happen every second of our lives, out of which breathing is considered to be the most essential. As previously mentioned, the lungs take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. The air that we breathe in, enters the human body and reaches to the lungs through a windpipe.

, called trachea, which branches further into two main tubes which distributes the air supply to both the left and the right lung , respectively. These tubes further divide themselves into 22 times the number of branches resulting in the formation of more than 100,000 smaller tubes, called bronchioles, and about 300 million air sacs or alveoli, which are only about a 0.3 mm in diameter. Since the walls of the alveoli are 150th the thickness of a tissue paper and are also covered up with millions of tiny blood vessels,.

Called capillaries, there is a freeflow exchange of both, oxygen and carbon dioxide, between the body and the environment. The lungs play an important role in the body's defense against infection and other harmful environmental factors. Air that is inhaled either through the nose or the mouth may consist of various dust particles or infectious agents, and ended up getting stored in the lungs. Mucus, which is a sticky liquid that is produced by the lungs, may trap the inhaled particles while the lung's white blood cells , that serve as protective agents, aid in the engulfment.

How To Lower Blood Pressure Quickly Quick Natural Way To Lower Your BP

Hi, my name is Usuff and I had pretty high blood pressure yesterday morning. It rose to 171113, which was pretty high for me. It was that high because I was experimenting with some B vitamins. And that experiment went disastrously wrong. In the evening my blood pressure was still high, although it had dropped a little bit to about 170100. Not good, remaining high for so long the whole day. I remembered a technique for bringing down high blood pressure quickly that I read in an ebook. And I applied the technique and I brought.

It down fairly successfully. How To Lower Blood Pressure Quickly. If you've ever lost control of your blood pressure, and it rises way too high, here's a technique you can use to bring it down quickly. This technique is taken from Virginia Sturm's ebook entitled Natural Solutions to High Blood Pressure. In this ebook Virginia explains the causes and dangers of high blood pressure. And outlines thirty natural ways to lower it. One of the ways she gives is soaking feet in hot water. When my blood pressure rose dangerously high, in desperation, I tried this technique.

And it did drop my BP down to a safer level within an hour. Much to my relief. Here's my story. One morning my BP hit the roof. It was 171113. I reacted badly to a supplement I was taking. After coming home from work my BP was still dangerously high. I needed to bring my BP down quickly. In desperation I tried Virginia Sturm's technique of my soaking my feet in warm water. I improvised and found a plastic recyling bin and emptied it. I then filled it with very warm water. As hot as my feet could tolerate.

At 8'pm, just before placing my feet in the water, I measured my BP. I used a reliable Omron BP monitor. Before soaking my feet, my BP was 16999. In other words, my BP had been high the whole day. Not good. I placed both feet in the warm water. The water was actually a bit hot. Over the next hour I watched it fall nicely, down from 16999 to 14082 in just an hour. In other words, this technique lowered my blood pressure from around 170100 to 14080 in an hour.

That's a big drop in a short time. And a huge relief. I kept soaking my feet the rest of that night. My BP did rise back up, but not as high as before. It stabilized around the 15090 mark that evening. Soaking my feet in hot water worked for me. I thank my lucky stars. I made this tutorial because others may be in a similar situation and want to know how to lower blood pressure quickly. Obviously, it's not a permanent fix. But it buys time. Time to look at more permanent solutions. Other BP lowering advice can be found in Virginia.

Sturm's ebook. If you're interested in her other ways to naturally lower BP, just go to BPGoLow. By the way, although Virginia advertises herself as an ordinary Mum, she is in fact a research scientist at the head of a university medical lab. To find her ebook, just go to BPGoLow. Or just click the link below this tutorial. Thanks for watching this tutorial on how to lower blood pressure quickly. Please note. This tutorial is not medical advice. If your BP rises dangerously high, please visit your doctor or the ER. High blood pressure is a serious medical issue.

what is blood pressure

Hi i m sami from fawzi academy In this tutorial I will generally talk about blood pressure Blood pressure BP is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels and is one of the principal vital signs. blood pressure usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation, usually measured at a person's upper arm. A person's blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure and is measured in millimeters of mercury mm Hg. Normal resting blood pressure for an adult is approximately 12080 mm Hg.

Blood pressure varies depending on situation, activity, and disease states, and is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Blood pressure that is pathologically low is called hypotension, and pressure that is pathologically high is hypertension. Both have many causes and can range from mild to severe, with both acute and chronic forms. Chronic hypertension is a risk factor for many complications, including peripheral vascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Hypertension is generally more common, also due to the demands of modern lifestyles. Hypertension and hypotension go often undetected because of infrequent monitoring.

What Is Blood Pressure hypotension hypertension systolic diastolic pressure

Hi i m sami from fawzi academy In this tutorial I will generally talk about blood pressure Blood pressure BP is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels and is one of the principal vital signs. blood pressure usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation, usually measured at a person's upper arm. A person's blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure and is measured in millimeters of mercury mm Hg. Normal resting blood pressure for an adult is approximately 12080 mm Hg.

Blood pressure varies depending on situation, activity, and disease states, and is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Blood pressure that is pathologically low is called hypotension, and pressure that is pathologically high is hypertension. Both have many causes and can range from mild to severe, with both acute and chronic forms. Chronic hypertension is a risk factor for many complications, including peripheral vascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Hypertension is generally more common, also due to the demands of modern lifestyles. Hypertension and hypotension go often undetected because of infrequent monitoring.

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