How does a Centrifugal pump work

Centrifugal pumps are the most preferred pumping devices in the hydraulic world.In this tutorial we will have a conceptual overview of working of centrifugal pumps.At the heart of the system lies the impeller.It has got a series of curved vanes, fitted inside shroud plates.The impeller is always immersed in water.When the impeller is made to rotate, it makes the fluid surrounding it also rotate.This imparts centrifugal force to the water particles and the water moves radially out.Since rotational mechanical energy is transferred to the fluid,.

At discharge side of the impeller, both pressure and kinetic energy water will rise.At the suction side water is getting displaced, so a negative pressure will be induced at the eye.Such a low pressure helps in sucking freshwater stream into the system again.And this process continues.This is the reason why priming is important for centrifugal pumps.If no water is present initially.The negative pressure developed by the rotating air at the eye of impeller will be negligibly small to suck fresh stream of water.Impeller is fitted inside a casing.

So the water moving out will be collected inside it, and will move in the same direction of rotation of impeller, to the discharge nozzle.Here you can note one speciality of casing.It has got increasing area along the flow direction.Such increasing area will help in accommodating, newly added water stream and will also help in reducing exit flow velocity.Reduction in flow velocity will result in increase in static pressure, which is required to overcome resistance of pumping system here you can see more details of veins inside impeller.

They are backward curved vanes with stateoftheart eye configuration this vane is extracted from a kirloskar pump model.If pressure at suction side impeller goes below vapor pressure of water, a dangerous phenomenon could happen.Water will start to boil forming vapor bubbles and spoil impeller materials over time this phenomenon is known as cavitation.More the section head, lesser should be the pressure at the suction side, to lift the water.This fact puts a limit to maximum suction head a pump can have.Careful pump selection is required to avoid the problem of cavitation.

The current impeller type is enclosed, semiopen and open impellers are also in use depending upon the application.If the working fluid is cloggy in nature, it is preferred to use open kind of impeller.But they are slightly less efficient.Mechanical design of centrifugal pump is always challenging.A shaft is used to connect between the impeller and motor since water pressure inside the casing is huge, a proper sealing arrangement is imperative in arresting water leakage through the shaftcasing clearance.Mechanical seal or stuffing box based mechanism is used for this purpose.

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