Autoregulation of Cerebral Blood
Hi! I'm Jim Smirniotopoulos and we are going to talk briefly about auto regulation of cerebral blood flow. This hass nothing to do with where you can park and how fast can drive. The brain is about 150 of your body's weight in adult patients. It gets about 16th of the cardiac output and, it uses about 20 percent or 15th of oxygen that we consume everyday. Cerebral gray matter has four times the blood flow as compared to the white matter and, this is typically measured in a standardized way.
By looking at the gray matter of the cerebral cortex and the white matter the corpus callosum. In the process of autoregulation, there is local control of cerebral perfusion and blood flow this is due to a sphincter like mechanism in the precapillary arterial that is responsive to tissue pCo2, pH, and very slightly to tissue oxygenation or p02. This local regulation of cerebral blood flow is the mechanism for BOLD scanning in functional MRI. W can also test this actively by giving the patient acetazolamide which drops brain pH and watching for an increase.
In cerebral perfusion, showing the reserve capacity. In a pressure passive system cerebral blood flow is going to be linearly related to mean arterial pressure. But, this is not good for the functioning of the brain. So in the brain we want to maintain cerebral perfusion in the face of varying blood pressure, and we do that by arteriole vasodilation or constriction in the pre capillary arteriole that last arteriole before the capillary bed. That will bend this pressureflow curve so that we can maintain the same degree of cerebral.
Perfusion over a wide range or mean arterial pressures. Brain perfusion is typically described as constant between eighty and a 180 millimetres of mercury BP. In patients who have chronic hypertension, this pressureflow curve is shifted to the right and, in these patients, if you lower their blood pressure into what would otherwise be a normal range they may actually reduce their cerebral perfusion and have ischemia. So, autoregulation is a mechanism by which the brain locally controls blood flow in a physiologic and dynamic manner, based on looking at tissue pH.
Anatomy and Physiology Cardiac Control Center in Medulla Oblongata
Let's learn about the cardiac control center The heart is capable of beating entirely on its own. However, there are times when the heart needs to speed up or slow down. This is where the nervous system comes in It all begins in the part of the brain stem known as the medulla oblongata. There is a part of the medulla oblongata that helps to control the heart called the cardiac control center. The parts of the cardiac control center include the cardioaccelerator center that speeds up the heart and the cardioinhibitory center.
That slows it down. The cardiac control center is sensitive to visceral input such as blood pressure, pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Let's look at the cardioaccelerator center in more detail. The cardioaccelerator center connects to the heart via cardiac accelerator nerves. These nerves connect to a part of the heart called the sinoatrial node. The sinoatrial node is located in the right atrium. The cardiac accelerator nerves secrete norepinephrine.a neurotransmitter that speeds up the heart. The cardiac accelerator nerves are also part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic.
Nervous system. Cardiac accelerator nerves run from the paravertebral ganglia in several thoracic segments to the heart. Lets look at the cardioinhibitory center. The cardioinhibitory center also connects to the sinoatrial node but it connects via the vagus nerve cranial nerve X. The vagus nerve secretes acetylcholine to the sinoatrial node. Acetyl choline works to slow down the heart. The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Its fibers come from the upper portion of the spinal cord and some fibers branch to reach the heart.
The vagus nerve innervates other organs as well. Let's see how this system works. Neenah just got off of work and is relaxing at home on the sofa. When Nennah sits up suddenly she notices her heart rate increases. This is due to a sensory receptor in Neenah's neck called the carotid sinus. The carotid sinus is located just above where the common carotid artery splits into internal and external carotid arteries. The carotid sinus is a baroreceptor. Baroreceptors sense changes in pressure. When Nennah sits up suddenly the pressure drops in her carotid artery.
Toxic Shock Syndrome Information Complications With Toxic Shock Syndrome
Hi, I'm Dr. Savage. I'm here to discuss complications from toxic shock syndrome. First of all, toxic shock, first present is fever, low blood pressure and skin manifestations being rash. Now toxic shock affects every organ in the body. So sometimes the initial presentation is neurologic symptoms such as confusion, irritability, among other things. Toxic shock is a life threatening and very dangerous condition. What ends up happening, because of it's manifestations are multiorgan system failure and potentially death. If there's any question of having toxic shock syndrome, contact the health care provider immediately. Other symptoms of multiorgan.
System failure, other neurological symptoms can include heart failure, kidney failure, which have their own characteristic signs which include but not limiting to chest pain, palpitation, shortness of breath, swelling, water in the lungs, decrease in urine output, blood in the urine and one of the thing I mentioned is regarding skin infections, the rash, it can manifest various ways but part of the time the, the infection starts in the skin. And you might have an infection pretty much anywhere, various places on the skin and also including, but not limited to the vagina and the throat. This concludes discussing.
Is My Body Ready for Another Pregnancy
Is my body ready for another pregnancy Are you back to something close to your prebaby body weight I'm not trying to lose 50 pounds. Can you imagine another baby without screaming in horror of going into labor again I can't wait. Then the answer is yes, you are ready mentally. Did you develop any conditions like high blood pressure while pregnant No, not really. If you developed diabetes, for example, you'd need to get that under control before you could think of getting pregnant again. The same is true for anything from bipolar disorder.
To thyroid problems. I know people who think I'm crazy for wanting another kid so soon, but no diagnosable conditions. Robert Heinlein wrote that a mother's delusions of her child's beauty, intelligence and etcetera served a useful condition, to keep the mother in delusion so the species can keep going. Then you think this is natural. Absolutely. Now, can you afford another kid Probably. You and he might want to get checked for any STDs, if there's any chance of one, because it can wreak havoc on a baby's body before it is even born. You should be STD free before.
Pregnancy to prevent nasty birth defects. I saw a Reddit thread on why ugly laws were passed, with pictures of a girl born without eyes because the mother had an STD. But we have antibiotics today. The pathogens can do their damage before it is wiped out. If in doubt, go to the doctor. I heard one girl say you should go to the doctor before you try to get pregnant, but that seems overkill. If you want to have another baby, get on prenatal vitamins now. How does that help.
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