Approximately onethird of all diabetes patients develop kidney or renal damage also known as diabetic nephropathy urinary proteome analysis isn’t innovative method the early detection of his chronic kidney disease neighboring the identification of first al signs the kidneys are highly developed organs that are very sensitive to any problems for example in the case have diabetes and can respond appropriately.
They clean the blood and remove waste that leaves the body in the urine the kitten is a made up about a million filters cooled glove merrily and canals called Jubilee the process of filtration takes place in the glomeruli about 1,500 liters of blood passed through the kidneys per day while toxins are removed.
Large amount to the important substances the recaptured by the jubilee eventually all toxins are discharged in about 1.5 liters the European each day when renal damage occurs the filtering process as well as the reabsorption process become more and more limited diabetesrelated high blood sugar levels cause permanent damage to the filters.
In addition diabetes patients often suffer from high blood pressure intensifying the renal damage the reduced ability to filter those becomes evident in an increasing amount important proteins such as albumin leaving the body the detection of protein in urine is generative first indication of such renal damage decreasing filtration read socalled.
Gf are is another indicator al signs such as pain or discomfort do not occur with the result that diabetic nephropathy is most of them only detected to very late stage of the disease and ongoing decrease infiltration eventually leads to irreversible chronic renal failure when the kidneys are permanently damaged and.
Noble tration happens transplantation or dialysis is required otherwise the body will be poisoned within a few days dialysis replaces the cleaning process a kidneys and takes place every two days for several hours during this time quality of life is significantly reduced.
Dialysis replaces kidney function for just several years is only 15 percent of the performance of healthy kidneys can be achieved kidney transplantation is the only longterm alternative option only a few patients can benefit from transplantation this the number of available organza limited however the transplants.
Your ability is limited urinary proteome analysis with the only diagnostic method in neighboring the detection of early renal damage with high reliability before any al symptoms occur up to 6,000 proteins can be detected simultaneously using 273 specific protein markers.
Aldosterone raises blood pressure and lowers potassium NCLEXRN Khan Academy
All right, we’ve talked about renin, we’ve talked about angiotensin. Let’s talk about aldosterone now. Aldosterone is the final hormone that gets your blood pressure to go up.
And so where does it come from? Aldosterone comes from a gland. I’m going to draw it here. And the gland is actually called the adrenal gland. And this gland literally sits right on top of the kidney. And so let me draw the kidney here for you.
So you can kind of orient yourself to where this gland would be sitting. And, of course, you have two kidneys. And you have two adrenal glands. You have the left and the right. And if you were to look inside of the adrenal gland,.
You’d notice that, actually, in the middle of the adrenal gland is an area that looks different than the outside. And we call that the medulla. The inside is the medulla. And the outer bit is the cortex. And they make different hormones.
And this cortex is actually the part of the adrenal gland that makes the aldosterone. So let me draw some cortex cells here for you. And in the middle is a blood vessel kind of running through. I’ll draw that in just a moment. So these cortex cells are basically like any other cells.
They need food, they need nutrients, they need oxygen. And so these capillaries that are running through are going to provide all of that to these cortex cells. And if you were to take a microscope and, let’s say, look deep within these cells. Maybe not even with a microscope,.
But let’s say you were able to look deep within these cells, you’d notice that there is cholesterol in these cells. So there’s cholesterol sitting inside of the cells. Actually, not visible, but it is there. And the cholesterol, I’ve always wondered, what is the point of cholesterol?.
It always seems like it’s a bad thing. This cholesterol is actually really useful to these cells because it helps them make the hormone aldosterone. Actually, aldosterone comes from cholesterol. And if you put the molecules next to each other, you’ll see how similar they are.