Aneroid Sphygmomanometer 215BK2015

A sphygmomanometer is a medical instrument used for measuring indirect arterial pressure. There are mercury, digital and aneroid sphygmomanometers. Aneroid machines have the same features as mercury but instead of mercurial momanometry they use an aneroid mechanism, which is characterised by its reduced impact on the environment. The aneroid sphymomanometre comprises an infatable chamber, a graduated momanometre, a tube which connects the momanometre to a rubber balloon and a valve that controls the air output. Taking arterial pressure is essential to know how a person is, in relation to their circulatory function.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Trigger Points Treatments, Animation.

Myofascial pain syndrome is a common chronic pain disorder that can affect various parts of the body. Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by presence of hyperirritable spots located in skeletal muscle called trigger points. A trigger point can be felt as a band or a nodule of muscle with harder than normal consistency. Palpation of trigger points may elicit pain in a different area of the body. This is called referred pain. Referred pain makes diagnosis difficult as the pain mimics symptoms of more wellknown common conditions. For example, trigger point related pain in the head and neck region may manifest as tension headache,.

Temporomandibular joint pain, eye pain, or tinnitus. Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome include regional, persistent pain, commonly associated with limited range of motion of the affected muscle. The pain is most frequently found in the head, neck, shoulders, extremities, and lower back. Trigger points are developed as a result of muscle injury. This can be acute trauma caused by sport injury, accident, or chronic muscle overuse brought by repetitive occupational activities, emotional stress or poor posture. A trigger point is composed of many contraction knots where individual muscle fibers contract and cannot relax. These fibers make the muscle.

Shorter and constitute a taut band a group of tense muscle fibers extending from the trigger point to muscle attachment. The sustained contraction of muscle sarcomeres compresses local blood supply, resulting in energy shortage of the area. This metabolic crisis activates pain receptors, generating a regional pain pattern that follows a specific nerve passage. The pain patterns are therefore consistent and are well documented for various muscles. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome aims to release trigger points and return the affected muscle to original length and strength. Common treatment options include.

Manual therapy, such as massage, involves application of certain amount of pressure to release trigger points. The outcome of manual therapy strongly depends on the skill level of the therapist. The Spray and Stretch technique makes use of a vapor coolant to quickly decrease skin temperature while passively stretching the target muscle. A sudden drop in skin temperature provides a pain relief effect, allowing the muscle to fully stretch, and thus releasing the trigger points. Trigger point injections with saline, local anesthetics or steroids are well accepted as effective treatments for myofascial trigger points.

Viscosity Measurement using Ostwalds Viscometer Amrita University

Viscosity Measurement All fluids liquids and gases exhibit a characteristic property of flowing under an applied force, which could be even the force of their own weight the ease which they flow differs from liquid to liquid. The property of resistance to flow when a stress is applied to a liquid is called its viscosity. Or internal friction present between two layers of a liquid which resists the flow of liquid is commonly known as Viscosity. Here, our aim is to find the absolute viscosity and the unknown composition of a given mixture. Apparatus.

Wash bottle, stop watch, viscometer Ostwald's, unknown liquid, pyknometer or R.D bottle, and pipette, weighing balance. Ostwald's viscometer is a traditional viscometer to measure the viscosity of a liquid. It is a Ushaped glass tube. In one arm, the bulb A is connected with a fine capillary. The lower end of capillary is connected with a Utube provided with a bulb B in the second arm. The bulb is necessary to maintain the hydrostatic pressure during flow of liquid. Through the capillary tube, the liquid flows with measurable speed. There are two marks C and D above and below the bulb A. The liquid.

Flows under its own weight. The density of the liquid is determined either by pyknometer or by R.D bottle. Procedure Clean the viscometer with chromic acid and then wash thoroughly with distilled water. It is then washed with alcohol or acetone and dried. A sufficient volume of distilled water is introduced by pipette in bulb B so that the bend portion of tube and half or a little more than half of bulb B are filled up. Clamp the viscometer in quite vertical position. Using the pippet pump, suck up water until it rises above the upper mark C and.

Allows it to flow under its own weight. The time of flow of water from C to D is counted by starting the stop watch as the meniscus just reaches upper mark C and stopping the watch as the meniscus just passes the lower mark D. Take at least 3 or 4 readings with water and then take the mean of them. Now remove the water from viscometer and dry it. Introduce in bulb B the same volume of liquid and measure the time of flow of liquid as before. Take at least 3 or 4 readings and then take the mean value. Now, wash and dry.

Understanding Blood Pressure Human Anatomy And Physiology Tutorial 3D Animation Elearnin

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