What Is Blood Pressure hypotension hypertension systolic diastolic pressure
Hi i m sami from fawzi academy In this tutorial I will generally talk about blood pressure Blood pressure BP is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels and is one of the principal vital signs. blood pressure usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation, usually measured at a person's upper arm. A person's blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure and is measured in millimeters of mercury mm Hg. Normal resting blood pressure for an adult is approximately 12080 mm Hg.
Blood pressure varies depending on situation, activity, and disease states, and is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Blood pressure that is pathologically low is called hypotension, and pressure that is pathologically high is hypertension. Both have many causes and can range from mild to severe, with both acute and chronic forms. Chronic hypertension is a risk factor for many complications, including peripheral vascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Hypertension is generally more common, also due to the demands of modern lifestyles. Hypertension and hypotension go often undetected because of infrequent monitoring.
Nutrition Tips How Does Ephedra Harm the Body
My name is Christine Marquette and I'm a registered dietitian with the Austin Regional Clinic and I'm going to talk to you about how ephedra harms the body. Ephedra has both thermogenic properties as well as stimulant properties. It can stimulate the central nervous system. And it can do it to such an effect that it can cause significant increases in your blood pressure. It can also cause you to be intolerant to heat. A few years ago you may remember reports of a Minnesota Viking player who died unexpectedly on the field during practice.
When the autopsy was done it was found that he was actually taking a supplement that contained ephedra. There have actually been several other reports of athletes who were using ephedra, they were out practicing in the heat, drop dead. And again the autopsies revealed that they were on ephedra. Remember ephedra does make your body intolerant to heat and they were working out in the heat so that was one of the things that were thought to be contributing factors. There have also been many, many, many other reports over fifteen thousand reports.
Anatomy and Physiology Cardiac Control Center in Medulla Oblongata
Let's learn about the cardiac control center The heart is capable of beating entirely on its own. However, there are times when the heart needs to speed up or slow down. This is where the nervous system comes in It all begins in the part of the brain stem known as the medulla oblongata. There is a part of the medulla oblongata that helps to control the heart called the cardiac control center. The parts of the cardiac control center include the cardioaccelerator center that speeds up the heart and the cardioinhibitory center.
That slows it down. The cardiac control center is sensitive to visceral input such as blood pressure, pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Let's look at the cardioaccelerator center in more detail. The cardioaccelerator center connects to the heart via cardiac accelerator nerves. These nerves connect to a part of the heart called the sinoatrial node. The sinoatrial node is located in the right atrium. The cardiac accelerator nerves secrete norepinephrine.a neurotransmitter that speeds up the heart. The cardiac accelerator nerves are also part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic.
Nervous system. Cardiac accelerator nerves run from the paravertebral ganglia in several thoracic segments to the heart. Lets look at the cardioinhibitory center. The cardioinhibitory center also connects to the sinoatrial node but it connects via the vagus nerve cranial nerve X. The vagus nerve secretes acetylcholine to the sinoatrial node. Acetyl choline works to slow down the heart. The vagus nerve is part of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Its fibers come from the upper portion of the spinal cord and some fibers branch to reach the heart.
The vagus nerve innervates other organs as well. Let's see how this system works. Neenah just got off of work and is relaxing at home on the sofa. When Nennah sits up suddenly she notices her heart rate increases. This is due to a sensory receptor in Neenah's neck called the carotid sinus. The carotid sinus is located just above where the common carotid artery splits into internal and external carotid arteries. The carotid sinus is a baroreceptor. Baroreceptors sense changes in pressure. When Nennah sits up suddenly the pressure drops in her carotid artery.
Diagnosing and Treating Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Chloes Story
It actually goes by a couple names. There's pseudotumor cerebri, which is which is the more common name in the public's eye and then there's intracranial hypertension. It's a syndrome involving the cerebral spinal fluid which is a fluid that bathes the brain. It helped cushion brain provide nutrients and things like that. It has and pressure that it exerts inside the skull and patients with this condition that pressure's actually elevated. The thoughts are is that there's an imbalance between the production and reabsorption of the spinal fluid which then results in increased pressure and all the symptoms that we see with that.
We see all age range of patients. When they're very young to through adolescence. Chloe was 14 years old when she was referred to us by her eye doctor who had noted the swelling in her eyes. I went to my eye doctor for Miley he really checkup and they asked to to take a picture the back of my eye and they looked at my optic nerves and saw that they were swollen. She did not have any symptoms at the time. We performed the lumbar puncture which noted the increased.
Intracranial pressure and thus completing the diagnosis. My eye doctor at Children's said that if we would leave it untreated that I could go blind. Most of our patients we're able to get away with medical management. We have medications that decrease the spinal fluid that you produce to help bring back in that balance. I take two pills in the morning two pills at night before I go to bed every day. Once the symptoms resolve then we will wean her off the medication and typically we follow patients for about two years.
I think we were very fortunate to catch it as early as we did. She may be one of those fortunate few that do not ever have symptoms other than just the swelling in the eye or it may be simply that we just caught it early enough that she hadn't had time to develop those symptoms yet. We can actually do surgery on the optic nerve to relieve the pressure on that through cutting essentially cutting holes in the covering of that optic nerve to relieve the pressure. Some patients also too, can benefit from.
Diversion of their spinal fluid so shunting similar to how we do hydrocephalus that our colleagues in neurosurgery perform.And then some patients when their weight is also a factor we refer them to our healthy weight and nutrition clinic. You see the ophthalmologist first. They go through the full exam and get a really good look in the back to the eyes at the nerve which is the thing most interested in. Then after that they come and see us in neurology where we put that piece of the puzzle together with how they're doing clinically in terms of symptoms.
Is Coffee Good For You HealthiNation
What's the number one source of antioxidants in the American diet Are you thinking dark chocolate Berries or red wine How about white, black or green teas Sure, they're all great sources of antioxidants, those substances that help us fight off aging and many diseases. But in terms of antioxidant value, those foods aren't worth a pile of beans compared to this hot shot coffee! The average American drinks about three and a half cups of coffee a day, meaning about 416 eight ounce cups of coffee a year, providing about 1300 mg of antioxidants every day. That's.
A whole lot of antioxidants, and a whole lot of coffee! So what IS coffee It's estimated that there are over a thousand different compounds in coffee, many formed during the roasting process. These include carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogenous compounds, vitamins, minerals, and alkaloids. Coffee also naturally contains caffeine. At high enough levels, caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, increases blood pressure and raises the metabolic rate. This has led some to think that drinking coffee could increase a person's risk for developing cardiovascular disease, especially for people who already have some of the risk factors for this condition,.
Such as high blood pressure. For adults with no previous history, moderate caffeine consumption did not increase the risk for coronary disease, stroke, or sudden cardiac death. And what about type 2 diabetes, Parkinson's, and certain forms of cancer like liver and colon cancer Actually, some studies have shown that drinking moderate amounts of coffee might even lower a person's risk of developing these serious conditions. Overall, there is a lot more research to be done. For right now though, it appears that for otherwise healthy adults, consuming moderate amounts of coffee 34 cups a day, providing.
300 400 mg a day of caffeine, there is little evidence of health risks and even some evidence of health benefits. Some groups, however, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine and should be more careful about their coffee intake. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be a good idea for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to no more than 3 cups a day providing no more than 300 mg a day of caffeine to lessen any chance of miscarriage or impaired.
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